No man is an island entire of itself; every man
is a piece of the continent, a part of the main;
The Mach Effect proposed by John Woodward for over decades is the John Donne of physics. He proposes that a body’s inertia is derived from the summation of all the other matter in the universe, that sa body has not only space in substance and form but is part of a unified canvas of the whole, wherein contours and creases of it are determined by the stretching, bending, and warping of its fabric given the system itself is the universe.
Woodward proposes that utilizing a piezoelectric crystal, thrust can be achieved in a relativistic manner of oscillating masses and not propellant propulsion. This is done as the mass moving away from a stationary mass via piezoelectric pull becomes lighter, and in contracting becomes heavier. As this cycle repeats, the center of gravity of the two masses and of the total system moves forward and accelerates. In the situation with the piezoelectric crystal, the Mach effect proposes that mechanical power is the main agency to fluctuate mass, whereas in the latter of propulsion, electrical energy is the main energy utilized.
This is not to say that a Mach Effect Thruster (MET) does not convert electrical energy to kinetic energy, but rather that MET controls gravinertial flux, the wind to this ship’s sail. There are also complications in how these bodies engage in nuances and their forces due to interference from other wavelengths upon the thruster such as Earth’s own magnetic field and heat observed within a body, such as the EmDrive project hypothesis as a means for thrust.
What the Mach Effect entails for the future of not only space flight but all forms of transportation is that there lies a possibility of creating a rangeless shuttl for flight where the main concern is not propulsion or fuel for travel but operational needs such as food, supplies and water for the crew.
If the notion of space travel is not sci-fi enough, the notion of propellant-free propulsion is even further out of reach, with what Woodward himself explains, “it represents the changing momentum to the distant future universe and preserves local momentum conservation in the present. What seems to be momentum dumped to the future is also momentum from the future dumped in the present- that tomorrow’s momentum is very much today!”
While progressions of the Mach Effect and propulsion all amount to a few micronewtons- not enough to make an apple topple over, and far from our goals of levitation or reaching Alpha Centauri, sometimes in the name of spurious questions of possibility breadth of science and discovery, the best ideas are unearthed. Some other forms of travel to be explored are laser-ablation propulsion and contained fission-fusion projects via NASA and other institutes, inclusive of Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Max Planck, and Tau Zero Foundations